Drought is a complicated issue; it is not simply a matter of too little rain. It involves evaporation, transpiration, ground water and snowfall. As farmers say, you don't lose your crop in January.

Koester Farm - The frozen fields look abandoned in the winter. Koester Farm - This fence line separates rich pasture land and the coulee from the corrals.



Bindloss Pioneer Committee. (1963). Golden memoirs, 1912-1963. Medicine Hat, Alberta: Val Marshall Printing.
The Historical Society has endeavored to preserve the family and district histories of an area of 540 square miles, extending north from the South Saskatchewan River, along the border between Alberta and Saskatchewan for 30 miles and west through ranges 1,2 &3. Each chapter is a personal recollection of each family. The book is in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the district.
Hay, Muriel. (1986). Carbon: our history, our heritage. Carbon, Alberta: Carbon Historical Committee.
A community history book of Carbon, honoring the early ranchers, coalminers and homesteaders who settled in the area, beginning in 1890.
Jewish Historical Society of Southern Alberta. (1996). Land of promise: the Jewish experience in Southern Alberta. Calgary, Alberta: Author.
This book covers the Jewish experience in Southern Alberta up to and through WW II. The photographs in the book are even more representative of this historical time period. The first section of the book provides a brief historical background and is followed by sections dedicated to many aspects of Jewish life. The book concludes with a section on family histories.
Jones-Hole, JoAnn. (2000). Calgary Bull Sale, 1901-2000. Calgary, Alberta: Circle V publishing.
This book is a celebration of 100 years of the Calgary Bull Sale. The early breeders are featured, from 1901-1950. From 1951-2000, main events, changes of each decade and some of the most successful breeders of each period are featured.
Short Grass Historical Society. (1974). Long shadows: a history of shortgrass country. Bow Island, Alberta: Author.
The material in this book is based on old-timers’ stories, records and research into various organizations. It describes the way of life in early Southern Alberta.
Standard Historical Book Society. (1979). From Danaview to Standard. Standard, Alberta. Author.
A community history book describing life for the people who settled in Standard, Alberta.


The Applied History Research Group. (1997). Palliser’s Triangle. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary. Retrieved June 9,2003, from http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/calgary/triangle.html
Description of the characteristics of the area in Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan that is called Palliser’s Triangle.
Francis, D., Guitard, M., Heindenreich, C., Janzen, O. (n.d.). John Palliser and Henry Hind: Scientific Surveying. Pathfinders and Passageways: The Exploration of Canada website. Retrieved June 9, 2003, from http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/2/24/h24-1850-e.html
Outlines the two separate “scientific” expeditions to inform Great Britain of populations and fauna, of the potential for roads and navigable waterways and of the possibilities for farming and mining.
More background on the Palliser expedition. (n.d.). Our Heritage website. Retrieved June 9,2003, from http://www.ourheritage.net/hector_pages/Palliser_bkgd_expanded.html
Provides a more detailed account of John Palliser’s one-man expedition to explore the British prairies and find out if there was any rail through the Rocky Mountains.
Stanford, Edward. Palliser’s map of North America, 1865. (n.d.). The Canadian West Virtual Exhibition. National Archives of Canada. Retrieved June 9, 2003 from http://www.archives.ca/05/0529/052910/05291024_e.html
Outlines the lasting contributions of the Palliser expedition in Canada, and in particular, how the “Palliser Triangle” was named.


The Applied History Research Group. (1997). Agriculture. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary. Retrieved June 9,2003, from http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/calgary/agriculture.html
Describes the agrarian settlement in Southern Alberta.


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (n.d.). Need for continuing research programs. Retrieved June 9, 2003, from http://collections.ic.gc.ca/agrican/pubweb/hs80022.asp
This document outlines the implications of research as it relates to the Palliser Triangle. As a result of research and ingenuity it has been possible to sustain production in this region. For the Palliser Triangle to be competitive with the advancing technologies of other countries, continuing research programs are needed. Research and development must be reinforced by detailed up-to-date studies of climate, soil, management systems, and the economic implications of these systems.
Bonkiowsky, L.N. (Ed.), (n.d.). Drought in Palliser’s triangle. Retrieved June 9,2003, from http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=ArchivedFeatures&TCE_Version=A&FeatureId=20
This document describes the history of how farming began in the Palliser Triangle and how devastating droughts have been to this area.
Brun, S.E., (n.d.). Part 2: Natural hazards in Canada: Atmospheric, hydrologic and geophysical hazards. Retrieved June 9, 2003, from http://www.utoronto.ca/env/nh/pt2ch2-3-1.htm
Various hazards to which Canadians are exposed are overviewed, in terms of their impacts, their physical causes and their frequency of occurrence. This article refers specifically to the impact that droughts have on Canada.
Jensen, R., (n.d.). Early history of climate and agriculture. Retrieved June 9, 2003, from The Applied History Research Group. (1997). Palliser’s Triangle. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary. Retrieved June 9,2003, from http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/calgary/triangle.html
Outlines the various farming methods used in the Palliser Triangle from 1896 to 1946.
Palliser triangle global change project. (n.d.). Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved June 9, 2003, http://sts.gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/page1/clim/palliser/
Introduces a collaborative, multidisciplinary research project to evaluate the impacts of climate on the land and water resources of the Palliser Triangle.